Extracellular Vesicles

Stimulate Your Body’s Healing Potential

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EXOSOMES EXPLAINED

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a diverse group of small, membrane-bound structures that are released by various types of cells into the extracellular environment. They play crucial roles in cell-to-cell communication, allowing cells to exchange information, signals, and molecules without direct contact.

EVs are involved in various physiological and pathological processes, including immune response regulation, tissue repair, cancer progression, and more.

TYPES OF EVs

There are three main types of extracellular vesicles

Exosomes

These are the smallest type of EVs, typically ranging in size from 30 to 150 nanometers. Exosomes are formed within the endosomal pathway of the cell.

They are released when multivesicular bodies fuse with the cell’s plasma membrane, releasing the intraluminal vesicles (now considered exosomes) into the extracellular space.

Exosomes contain a variety of molecules; proteins, lipids, RNA, and even DNA. 

Microvesicles

These are larger than exosomes, typically ranging from 100 to 1,000 nanometers in size. Microvesicles are formed through outward budding and fission of the plasma membrane.

They can contain similar types of cargo as exosomes, including proteins, lipids, and various forms of RNA.

Microvesicles are released from the cell surface and can directly interact with target cells.

Apoptotic Bodies

These are the largest type of extracellular vesicles, ranging from 1,000 to 5,000 nanometers in size. Apoptotic bodies are released during a controlled process of programmed cell death called apoptosis.

They are formed when cells undergo apoptotic changes and fragment into membrane-bound structures that can be engulfed and cleared by phagocytic cells.

POTENTIAL OF EVs

Potential of EVs for various applications

Diagnostics

EVs can serve as biomarkers for diseases since their cargo can provide insights into the condition of the cells they originated from. 

Therapeutics

EVs can be engineered to carry cargo and target specific cell types. This makes them great candidates to deliver therapeutic molecules to treat various diseases.

Regenerative Medicine

EVs derived from stem cells or other regenerative cell sources have shown potential for promoting tissue repair and regeneration by influencing local cell populations.

FEATURED PROVIDERS

Health Practitioners

Dr. Kirsten Brown PT, DPT

NOMPTI Certified Cervical Spine Specialist

Salvador Renteria, DO

Board Certified in Surgery and Integrative Medicine

Christina Shelly

Registered Nurse

Henry Elloso

Director, Clinical Operations

FAQ’s

What are exosomes in simple terms?
A tiny sac-like structure that is formed inside a cell and contains some of the cell’s proteins, DNA, and RNA. Exosomes are messengers between cells that play a vital role in the communication and rejuvenation of cells.
What is the purpose of exosomes?
Exosomes are secreted by all types of cells and are also found abundantly in the body fluids such as: saliva, blood, urine and breast milk. The major role of exosomes is to carry the information by delivering various effectors or signaling molecules between specific cells.
Where do exosomes come from?

MSCs derived exosomal cargo exhibit intracellular signaling and communications to targeted tissues. The key sources of exosomes derived from the MSCs include bone marrow, adipose tissue, placental cells, umbilical cells, endometrial fluid, and amniotic fluid.

What is the difference between stem cells and exosomes?

Stem cells are a special type of cell found in the body. They’re unique because they can become any type of cell, and they act as both building blocks and repair mechanisms in your body. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles, which is the medical term for tiny bubbles that are released from stem cells.

Are exosomes better than PRP?
Many consider Exosome therapy to be one step above PRP therapy as it can provide more effective results. Unllike PRP therapy, there is not much downtime necessary for this procedure, which makes it a great choice for many men and women.
How are exosomes used in medicine?
Exosomes have demonstrated regenerative properties by reducing inflammation and apoptosis while promoting proliferation and angiogenesis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and MSC-derived exosomes are popular in regenerative medicine, due to their multipotency and self-renewing properties.
How are exosomes administered?
Exosome therapy can be administered through intravenous (IV) therapy, nebulizer, or direct injection in the treatment area. Exosomes are powerful elements that can restore cells throughout your body. They enhance cell-to-cell communication, which is essential for overall cell health.
How long does it take for exosome therapy to work?
For most patients, results tend to appear within three to four months of treatment, and the best, most dramatic results appear within nine months. We have seen some positive results in as little as a few weeks.
How many exosome treatments are needed?
You can achieve your desired results with only one session of exosomes therapy. However, some people may need a few sessions of exosome therapy for pain and get booster injections to achieve significant results.

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